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Within the discipline of visual arts, Printmaking occupies a novel place as a medium of expression. Artworks are part of the traditional complex, and it is quite inevitable that any change within the tradition would have an effect on the artwork produced. Printmaking has mirrored this phenomenon, greater than another type of art. Printmaking has occupied an important status within the historical past of visual arts. It has been thought of as a lesser or trivial art form, on the one hand, its infinite qualities have allowed it to be closest to the ‘pulse-beat of human Experiences’ as well.
Printmaking has been a source of knowledge, a medium of communication, or merely entertaining. It has been textual, visual, in style, and practical.
The impression of printmaking on the everyday lives of all individuals is immense. Right now, a number of facets of this medium have been outlined and perfected individually. And Printmaking as a Fine Expression is unbiased and distinctive. Distinctive as a result of the original methodology of printing – because it was invented, has been handed down through the ages with little or no adjustments and changes. It retains its naturally intimate quality. At the same time, its versatility has allowed it to continuously evolve and adapt itself from its starting, which may be mentioned to have begun with Primitive Art.
The recognition for visually creative arts can absolutely go to the first cave painter, in all probability on the age of CroMagnon Man, when the earliest rock-engraving and portray types appear in caves. It’s wondrous to think about what intuition led him to make ‘stencilled or coloured imprints of hand on the wall’ of his dwelling.
On the walls of quite a lot of the caves, claw marks of the Cave Bear have been discovered, and it has been noticed that engravings and painting, normally, appear close to these spots.
The Bear was thought of to be a god on earth in disguise, and its claw mark meant magic. Human Hand imprints were perhaps an imitation of the imprints of the bear. Most likely, another clue lies within the ‘Footprints’ left by the hooves of animals on the earth. For the cave-dweller, these ‘prints’ were magical, for they led him to meals and meant survival. These ‘prints’ were a lucky signal.
Due to this fact, ‘picture’ meant survival or existence for the first artist. The artwork of carving upon bone, stone, metal, or wood was widespread to Historical Civilizations. For e.g. the carved votive seals of the Indus Valley Civilizations, which have been made by pressing a carved block on clay, and the woodblocks, utilized in Egypt for printing textiles.
History of Printmaking In East Asia
The primary part of the printmaking technique, preparing a block, was not a mystery for humankind. Paper is relatively far more handy than cloth, fabric or clay which was used before the invention of paper. Paper was invented in China somewhere around 105 A.D. It remained a native secret till the Chinese prisoners in Samarkand (757 A.D.) and Baghdad (793 A.D.) let it out to the world.
Stone Rubbing technique
This knowledge of papermaking was later transmitted to Saracens in Spain in 1150 A.D. The papermaking technique reached India during the 13th century A.D. Earlier than the printing process, another type of printing method existed in China – the “stone-rubbing. Lampblack ink was perfected by the 4th to 5th century A.D. and it was found that impressions from inscriptions upon stone corresponding to “Confusion classics” could possibly be rubbed off onto paper. A dampened, skinny sheet of paper of the robust quality was laid on the stone and rubbed vigorously so that the imprint of the crest and trough of the stone surface was transferred onto the sheet of paper.
The Diamond Sutra
Printmaking in China was required for the large amount of spiritual literature and photos during the expansion period of Buddhism. This led to the invention of Block Printing for printing portraits of Buddha in 650 A.D. The earliest dated woodcut, still in existence on paper, is a Buddhist sculpture of 868 A.D. referred to as the “Diamond Sutra”. A full translation of the document’s title is The Diamond That Cuts Through Illusion.
The Diamond Sutra entitled “Hiraka Sutra” is 6 sheets of text each 2.5 ft long and 1 ft wide and 1 shorter sheet in woodcut, pasted collectively to form a steady roll of 16 ft. Sir Aurel Stein discovered it in 1907.
Movable Type Printing
The refinement within the carving signifies that earlier than this, cruder woodcuts must have existed. Printing originated from stamping. An overwhelming majority of Chinese woodcuts had been made for books for Confusion Cannon, 932 A.D. or Buddhist Cannon or Tripitaka, 972 A.D. Buddhism relied on the written phrase for propagation and the quantitative change of printmaking method was appropriate. Textual content supplemented by pictures might be produced in large numbers in a brief period. Pishang in 1043 A.D, invented movable type of baked clay. In 1314 A.D. Wang Chang made the woodcut type and Koreans invented the steel type in Bronze in 1392 A.D.
In China, Printmaking was used to reproduce already existing materials rather than creating any unique artistic work. The printed picture was a way to an end, however by no means an finish in itself. Printmaking is the art of making Art in multiples. It was not a preferred art; rather, students used it. It was left to different parts of the world to find the probabilities of the medium of high-quality artwork.
The contribution that China made within the medium through the invention of paper to the world is impossible to negate.
On surveying the modifications in Printmaking in the world, one would really feel that the inspiration of the medium lies in primitive artwork, its origin within the carvings of the traditional civilizations, its beginning with the invention of paper, and its growth as a printed picture on paper in China. Thereafter, its growth branches off to completely different areas such as Europe, Japan, and India.
Japanese Woodblock Printing
The Chinese art of woodcut had an opportunity to flourish as Ukiyo-e within the neighbouring country Japan, the place where this indirect source of inspiration turned into a mirrored image on how immensely popular prints can turn out to be through editions. The art of Ukiyo-e flourished between 1660 A.D. to 1860 A.D. in Japan.
A number of the best Printmakers, expertise, and creativeness could be seen in woodblock prints. These prints grew to become a symbol of independence and pleasure of the urban middle class.
It was a spontaneous fashionable expression. These prints are special for a lot of reasons. They advanced in complete isolation from the rest of the world as the ports of Japan remained closed for merchants between the 17th to 19th century A.D. Under the rule of Tokugawa Shogunate, who feared Christianity and wished to consolidate his political energy, the ruler named Lemtsu took this step. This led to a very self-sufficient social arrange with a strict code of conduct within the society.
Ukiyo-e’s method of expression was developed by the lowest class of the newly wealthy merchant class, which needed its own cultural outlet, being debarred from participating in any classical artwork type. Together with different art forms such as the Kabuki theatre, this art developed as a result of a typical need felt by the people. As such, these prints turned a reflection of the daily lives of the middle class and have become an expression of artwork. It turned a way of communication, was decorative, and used for promoting the popular elements of the culture. They had been made in massive amounts, had been bought cheaply, and had been a quite common sight in most households.
In Japan, the place where Printmaking began as a popular visual art, the evolution of the medium is fairly fascinating. Here the personal mark, signature, identity or Kunstwollen of the artist and the time, age reciprocates. It is difficult to demarcate whether a specific Ukiyo-e artist initiated the mood within the spirit of his times, or whether the spirit of the times inspired him to work in a specific manner. The mode is synchronic. There are some main exponents who mark the beginning of a specific method of expression, and there are lots of other artists that observe these patterns.
Since Ukiyo-e flourished in a compact time-frame and area, this research of reciprocal development might be scrutinized. Decorative, banal, informative, exhibitive, and documenting works co-exist and the Japanese artist with their complete dedication to their work made it certain that the identification of the artist stays intact.
When Ukiyo-e started in Japan, Indian artists in princely courts were already conscious of the printed images, (through presents given by European merchants to the Indian royalty) and Printing presses that would type textual content had been arranged in a few parts of India. When Ukiyo-e art came to an end in Japan, an identical in style wood-cut tradition by the title of “Battala Print” flourished in Bengal, India, in the midst of the 19th century A.D. and varied techniques of metallic engraving, etching, and acquaint had turn into more and more in style.
Ukiyo-e’s impression on Europe and India was immense. In Europe, Printmaking was rediscovered as a medium of expression and for the first time, there was an acknowledgment that artwork of a non-Christian country could be superior or inspiring. By the end of the century, Impressionist and Post-Impressionist artists grew to become more and more impressed by Ukiyo-e. Most Indian artist of the early 20th century owes part of their sensitivity to Ukiyo-e.
These prints have been utilized in quite a lot of purposes such as screens, fans, commercials for tea houses, courtesans, actors and actresses, for landscape flora fauna, posters, and illustration for poetry and albums. Although considered as lesser than the classical counterpart, Ukiyo-e was an art form that was born out of need and demand. And its transcendental high quality of magnificence, portraying the ephemeral, graceful being stuffed with evocative energy, has these qualities which specific the sweetness in art.
Ukiyo-e proves that given the proper circumstances, the medium of Printmaking can turn out to be an intrinsic part and a powerful expression that will minister the lifestyle in a society. Ukiyo-e being confined to a compact time and area, clearly exhibits the assorted attributes of Printmaking. Such characteristics are also seen in Printmaking activities in Europe. However in Europe, they’re stretched over a big time span and vaster space.
Printmaking in Germany
Printmaking began to be produced on paper when it became accessible in sufficient quantity within the fifteenth century A.D. Printing originated in Upper Bavaria and Austria about 1400 A.D. Then it progressively spread to the opposite areas. By 1440 A.D., it had reached the Upper Rhine Valley. The earliest prints had been in woodcuts in the relief process. Within the fifteenth century in Europe the demand for written materials was minimal. Marginal luxuries similar to an image had been fulfilled by the church. So although paper made printing potential and printing made use of paper, the feudal European society didn’t want ‘Art at Home’.
Crusades offered contact with distant places, which led to the expansion and awareness of luxuries amongst a rich merchants society who resided in Free Cities exempted from Feudal obligation. A style was developed for art and it began for use more and more amongst the rulers, the church, and the mercantile class. So it was as soon as once more the merchants in free cities who inspired the high-quality print. As within the middle class of Japan, this trading community too felt the necessity for art. Some of the common and popular forms of the printed image to evolve was playing cards. They have been made due to popular demand. Both cheaply reduce and printed or in elaborate intricate methods. In Germany and Italy within the early fifteenth century A.D. huge amount of playing cards have been produced.
By 1450 A.D. the printing press for relief and movable type for text was invented and got here into use. So the text and the picture might be printed together. In Europe the credit score for invention of movable type is ascribed simultaneously to Gutenberg of Mainz (Germany), to Coster of Harlem (Holland) Johannes Brito of Burges (Belgium) Panifilo Castalde of Feltre (Italy). This itself proves that the recognition of Printing was huge.
As if the technique of printmaking turned the priority of many somewhere else and the pace of inventing further methods turned to a standard quest. The art of printing spread in Europe through Italy in 1465 A.D., France 1470 A.D., Spain 1474 A.D., England 1477 A.D., Denmark 1482 A.D., Sweden 1483 A.D., Portugal 1495 A.D. and Russia 1553 A.D. Prints gained popularity mainly as a result of it might be ‘made simply, in massive amount, was reasonably priced and simple to carry. They turned common objects resembling iconic illustration pasted on travelling boxes of preachers lawyer and merchant, binding in books and many others.
Religious images similar to pictures of Christ, Saints and different illustrations from the Bible have been additionally the topic of prints. They have been simply obtained for prayers, they warded off sickness and evil, they may very well be made Patron Saints. They had been economical and available for the common man.
By the end of the fifteenth century A.D., the relief printing process was refined and its demand had increased a lot in order that we discover guild artists using professional cutters or ‘formschniders’ to produce refined woodcuts engravings, and many others.
That is true of great artists such as Albrecht Durer (1471-1528) who drew his compositions and his formschniders skillfully executed the identical on wooden or metallic. Durer formschniders have been Hieronynus Andrea and Wolfgan Resch – they have been guild artisans.
Woodcut began for used for illustrations more and more from 1470 A.D. onwards. The text and the image have been cut out from the same block at the same time. One e.g. of such a work is ‘Biblica Pauperism’ or Bible of the poor of about 1465 A.D. from the Netherlands.
Right up to the time when metal engraving and later Etching turned more popular, Relief Printing turned more and more refined. Color woodcut started at the beginning of the sixteenth century. The place shade was applied by hand initially, a number of blocks began for use and later Ugo da-Capri (1480-1530) has been accredited with the invention of the Italian or Reduction method.
The earliest surviving intaglio is ‘Christ Crowned with Thorns’ of 1466 A.D. By about 1500 A.D. etching and drypoint had originated and began for use more and more.
Intaglio reigned supreme till the technique of lithography grew to become popular. It was invented by Alois Senefelder in 1798 A.D. By the first quarter of the nineteenth century this medium had captured the imagination of most and its autographic direct method of expression was to its benefit and impressed many to take up as a Medium of Expression.
The Printmaking techniques which had been invented one after the opposite added to its versatility. Together with modifications within the style in European art, Printmaking techniques too had been developed. This medium has continuous improvement technically from its conception. And the implication of such fixed activity can also be outstanding. The Western world, where this medium has left deep impressions, has experienced periods of intense activity adopted by almost trivial banalities a lot in order that the medium turns into almost an excuse or substitute.
Art of each region changes from age to age according to circumstances in form or content material in purpose and usefulness. The versatility of the medium and its immense scope is reflected by the truth that it has been made a mode of expression in numerous revolutionary types advantageously and impressed many to take it up as a medium of expression.
In Gothic times the “melody of the Northern Line” discovered reflection within the woodcut and wood engraving high quality. Artists such as Durer and his contemporaries exemplify it through calligraphic characteristics on the rendering of bold lines by woodcuts. A new word comes into works after Durer’s contact with the Italian Masters and the dramatic transition from Gothic to Renaissance turns into apparent. Interestingly the Gothic attribute discovered is in Durer’s woodcuts and the Renaissance qualities of refinement in his metal engravings.
Florentine characteristic or ‘High-quality Method’ is present in engravings on Metallic which have a system of crosshatching by high-quality lines giving a wash impact. The Board method of Florentine Engravings has used parallel lines moderately like pen and ink drawings.
The Dutch Realism was portrayed within the works of Rembrandt Van Ryn in 1606 His feeling for humanness and its depth in making the actual and ordinary accessible is evident in his works. In his work, the dramatic depth of sunshine and shade is possible by way of drypoint and etchings.
The delicacy of the tone of the 18lh century is reflected through the aquatints and Mezzotiuts of Reynolds. Hogarth and Piranesi contributed in direction of this characteristic. Aside from the aquatint technique, the stipple and crayon technique has been developed to reproduce the quality of pastel – artists such as Francesco Bartolozzi labored on this medium.
The nineteenth century was the age of lithography and being an autographic and more direct type of expression many artists took it up. By the point lithography had grown to be in style, the identification of every artist’s individuality of expression had also grown to be vital. Each artist developed their very personal unique style and method of expression.
For this lithograph technique was particularly suitable. The modifications within the position of the artist and artwork itself due to technical development, simply replicate the transiency of life. That is one aspect of the actual fact. These similar options may also be famous in one other type that’s the specific artist of an age confirming his times and the by way of their specific method of expression. Within the preliminary levels when printmaking was invented, text was the primary printed part. The image existed earlier than the script was invented. However, when printmaking began on paper. The text was printed earlier than the image – or figuration. Most information states the Text is the primary printed matter.
Book block had been woodblock on which text and pictures were mixed. It is just after 1450 A.D. that the technique of mechanical printing was invented for mass production with the help of a press with durable movable typeface, die, and matrix, and the primary book the Vulgate Bible was printed in 1456 A.D. from the Guttenberg press of Mainz. From right here the difference between the development of textual printing and image printing begins.
Progressively, textual printing turned completely separate and had an impartial technical growth. However, at this time after we consider the historical past of the printmaking medium, we look to the imagery somewhat than the text. At this time the Printmaker is accepted as a high-quality artist – she or he has a standing just like a Painter or Sculptor. However, the historical past relates that works of art have survived, and their creator remains nameless.
In many states within the historical past of printmaking, the printer is merely a technician and simply part of the method of making popular art. His specific style and method of expression didn’t change into important. In the Indian Printmaking historical past, the printmaker’s function from a technician to a fantastic artist is extra extended – the reason is the shortage of the variety of printmakers or printmaking as a preferred artwork.
The artist’s identity is considered unimportant and in addition, there existed a disregard in the direction of the medium’s capability as a high-quality expression till very current times.
Within the discipline of visual art, the idea of free art of Artwork with a capital ‘A’ is a phenomenon that was developed regularly due to social-political, economic-or aesthetic circumstances. In the beginning, the artist was not liberated from social bonds and dependencies.
Within the field of printmaking, we have now examples from European artwork – such as Hercules Seghers (1590-1640) whose imaginative emotional expression with its intense identification to nature made him a misfit in Dutch realism. His life was a struggle towards poverty and despair. His excellent works such as ‘The Three Books’ are seen as masterpieces today. Honore Daumier grew to become a borderline case between fantastic artist and artist with a social purpose (by his creatures) or Toulouse Lautrec whose posters additionally had a particular goal together with being a great expression in themselves. We’ve printers in Indian historical past within the Battala artist whose particular person contribution is Unknown.
Indus Valley Civilization
Like some other tradition which has centuries deep historical past, in India too carving on wooden, bone, stone, and metal was well-known. The seals of the Indus Valley Civilization 5000 years old had been present in Mohenjedaro or the Mudras which means seals mentioned in the Artha sastra of Kautilya 400 B.C. – 400 A.D.
The Markera engravings of the Chera dynasty in 466 A.D, in copperplate recording the deeds of land, the evidence of printing on material from stone blocks comparable to a small carved block present in Bhanu district of the Northwest Frontier province within the fifth century A.D. or the woodblock printed textile of Indian origin discovered on the Nile opposite Cairo in Egypt in all probability transported by commerce referred to as Fostat Material which is block printed and hand-painted all present that Printing or engraving approach was not unknown in India. However the principle distinction was Printing on paper.
This was not practiced although Paper turned out there to India by the thirteenth century A.D. Printing on paper began only after 1556 A.D. the 12 months when the printmaking approach was delivered to India by Jesuit Missionaries.17 Two presses have been arranged by 6 Sept. 1556 A.D. in Goa. These presses have been truly on their strategy to Abyssinia to assist in the missionary work however resulting from sure circumstances, the ship was detailed in Goa. From Goa-printmaking. steadily started spreading to different parts of India. So in an approach, the presses have been arranged by accident in 1556 A.D.
In India initially, all printing was achieved on a Porus paper of very rough quality known as ‘Patna Paper’. This paper was not of excellent high quality however importing, paper from England was not economical, and it took an excessive amount of time. The ‘native’ paper was sized with rice previous and caught white-ants or bookworms very easily. It was only after a steam engine was used to operate a paper mill in Serampur in 1820 A.D. that good, high-quality paper in bulk may very well be made in India. It’s clear that paper (wanted to initiate printmaking) was accessible to India by the thirteenth century, and the matrix or blocks have been additionally being made for various functions. So the query that arises is Why did India not begin Printmaking on paper by itself? Why did it wait till 1556 A.D. to comprehend the necessity for printmaking? This may be partly answered by means of the conclusion primarily based on the Indian socio-economic structure.
Indian society had a particular class of individuals with totally different occupations and desires. Education was mainly oral, the necessity for written text was not nice, and no written scripts had been mandatory within the type of handwritten paperwork.
Education or reading was confined to a certain part. The truth is, calligraphy was an art form. The demand for a big quantity of text or illustration didn’t exist for instructional, spiritual, or communicative purposes. And India didn’t have one uniform language for all areas. So only because of the want felt by the Missionaries, to propagate Christianity, the printing technique may begin enjoying any position.
The first six books that have been printed by the Jesuits don’t exist anymore. Thus it’s not recognized whether or not there was a visible illustration with the text. 18 The presses in Goa turned out literature from movable metal type. So in India printing was began with metal type and not wooden block. And the principle precedence was the textual content. In 1674-75 A.D. Printing Presses have been arranged in Bombay by Bhimjee Parekh and in 1712 A.D. in Tranquebar, 1772 A.D. in Bengal by East India company.
Companion Spiritual Davida Christaa ~ by Jasper de Leao of 1561 A.D. which has the earliest evidence of traditionally decorative woodcut preliminary at every opening chapter within the relief process.
In 1579 A.D. the first book within the Indian language was Doutrina Christiana, a Tamil translation printed with an illustration in a woodcut of Trinity in glory with the Holy ghost above God the Father and God the Son enthroned. The primary illustrated cover page in relief process by 1568 A.D. and copperplate engraving by 1716 A.D. in Gramatica Damulica.
The Asiatick Research of 1789 A.D. had fifteen engraving by an Indian artist. The primary Indian to make illustrations in printmaking in a book – Oonoodah Mogol in 1816 A.D. is Ramchand Roy.
British engravers settled in Calcutta in the 18th century for initiatives equivalent to Mapping India, undertaken by the East India Comp. By 1770 A.D. Printmaking visually recorded scenes, which had been taken up by the camera by the end of the final century. To make the books engaging printed illustrations had been added and this led to a new type of printing in India.
Within the early stage of the Printmaking historical past of India, the engraving was carried out by professionals and never by the artist themselves and it only existed in type of book illustration. Many foreign artists – few printmakers amongst them – visited India within the late 18th A.D. to early nineteenth cent A.D.Artist such as Thomas and William Daniell had been the primary to try printmaking on a big scale in his ‘Twelve Views of Calcutta and Fort William (1787-94 A.D.) or Frans Baltasar Solvyn’s – A group of Two Hundred and Fifty coloured Etchings descriptive of Manners Custume and Attire of the Hindoos (1799 A.D.), and many others.
The printmakers in India may be divided into a number of classes. Those that got here from Foreign countries and printed on the government presses – largely British who have been interested by documentation work. Those that worked together with these printmakers have been Indians. They took up the occupation of printmaking for it was gaining immense recognition as a mode of communication and slowly grew to become a occupation. The historically expert craftsmen of India who belonged to sure caste – varna, gotra and kula. After the center of the nineteenth century, we even have academically skilled Indian printmakers from the varied artwork colleges arrange by the British in several elements of the nation.
Printmaking grew to become immensely popular in India within the nineteenth century within the Battala a small book district in Calcutta. Being the capital Calcutta developed a large neo-literate urban mass. So the necessity for printing grew and the Battala prints got here to indicate the illustrative want of the public.
The primary press in Calcutta was set up in 1807 A.D. by Baburam in Khidderpore. This district arose resulting from a requirement for an inexpensive publication by the city mass. Guide illustration gave approach to single-sheet show prints by 1850 A.D. There have been 46 printing presses run by Indians. Its topics had been faith, historical past, erotica, crime, legends, calendars, portraits, iconography, day after day style scenes, illustration of epics similar to Mahabharata, Ramayana, and Chaitanyas’ life and dramatic courtroom circumstances. They had been produced in giant portions and made by the woodblock within the relief process. The colour was utilized crudely by brush.
The Battala prints derive their inspiration from indigenous sources – folks art, miniatures, Kalighat pattas and European work. The combination of all these offers the Battala prints a uniqueness.
The Battala prints present an in-depth relationship between current life and art is possible and ‘this relationship is so integral that it may be referred to as natural or intrinsic” Due to rapid advancement in technology and the appearance of lithography which was launched in 1822 A.D. in Calcutta by two French artists – Mr. Belnos & Mr de Savignhac, the recognition of woodcuts began to minimize.
Chromolithography and its advantages step by step took up the market. The themes in lithography remained identical as for relief prints. The Battala print’s popularity declined by 1880-90s A.D. It didn’t disappear as soon. It steadily retreated to its unique book illustration format. Evidence of printing outside Calcutta came in the type of stamping with woodcut blocks like in (1850 A.D.) a manuscript was commissioned by Maharaja Rao Vijay Singh (1815-1857 A.D.) of Alwar. In 1870 A.D. woodcut prints have been used by Sikhs as a reminder of their glory, valor, and religious identification.
Topics such as battle scenes, or themes resembling a preparation with Sikh driver and passengers had been additionally standard. Lithography press was arranged outside in Calcutta, in Madras (1827 A.D.) Bihar (1828 A.D.), Lucknow (1830 A.D.) Raja Ravi Verma (1848-1906 A.D.) set up a press in Girgawn within the later half of the century.
Printed matter reminiscent of documentation or commercial or textual printing did occupy the most important portion of curiosity within the medium. Printmaking as a nice expression and its commercial counterpart segregated when the faster and true representative methodology of picture replica by mechanical means within the type of letterpress course of block the method was invented by one Upendrakishor Roy Choudhary.
He was a co-founder amongst many who had tried to excellent this method. From then on roughly 1st quarter of this century, commercial printing various to adapt this faster extra mechanical methodology. Any signal of the place that printed image had attained as an advantageous expression in different areas of the world (Europe, Japan) curiously didn’t materialize in India. Battala prints that had spontaneity of expression too petered off to book illustration.
Lithography medium gained popularity however once more because the image to accompany text or a calendar art of god, godless or as labels, stamps of products to be offered. By themselves, these mediums we not independently explored. Till this century there aren’t any examples of the medium’s expression apart from its usefulness because of the copy of the pre-existing picture or as a commercial or illustration for gadgets or objects.
Read More: To know more about the other art forms, please check out the 4 part blog series on The History of Oil Painting!
01. The Lascaux Cave Paintings
02. Rubbing of Guandi (War God) from a Ming dynasty stone carving
03. The Diamond Sutra
04. Five Things to Know About the Diamond Sutra
05. The Cockpit, William Hogarth
06. The Mysterious Landscapes of Hercules Segers
07. Asia’s 1st Printing Press which came to Goa
08. Envisioning South Asia, Texts Scholarship Legacies
09. The First Printed Works of Bengal
10. Woodcut Prints of 19th Century Calcutta
Independent Artist | MFA | Graphics | Visual Arts | Print Making